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Kenapa Muslim di Ningxia Sejahtera dan di Xinjiang Ditekan?

Sholat Jumat

Tuntutlah ilmu walau sampai ke negeri Cina, begitu hadits Nabi.
Saya lihat komunitas Muslim di Cina ada 2 golongan: Hui (10,5 juta jiwa) di propinsi Ningxia, dan Uyghur (10 juta) di propinsi Xinjiang. Keduanya sebetulnya propinsi Otonom di Cina.

Dari berbagai berita yang saya dapat, kenapa Hui yang mayoritas Sufi mendapat keistimewaan di Cina seperti bebas menjalankan sholat, puasa, dsb bahkan mendirikan sekolah2 Islam dan juga masjid2, ini karena Hui yang beraliran Sufi ini tidak memberontak terhadap pemerintah Cina.

Pemerintah Cina melarang buku “Xing Fengsu” (“Sexual Customs”) yang menghina Islam dan memenjarakan pengarangnya tahun 1989 setelah protes di Lanzhou dan Beijing oleh Muslim Hui. Polisi memberikan perlindungan kepada Muslim Hui (karena mereka demo di wilayah yang mayoritas non Muslim) dan pemerintah Cina mengorganisir massa untuk membakar buku tsb. Pemerintah Cina membantu Hui sebab suku Hui tidak memberontak dan tidak berusaha memisahkan diri dari Cina.

Muslim Cina

Sebaliknya suku Uyghur di Xinjiang ditekan karena melakukan pemberontakan dan berusaha memisahkan diri dari negara Cina. Uyghur ini didominasi Wahabi yang beraliran keras dan banyak melakukan pemboman sehingga disebut teroris oleh pemerintah Cina.

Jika Muslim Hui bebas dalam beragama bahkan sholat Jum’at di tempat terbuka, “KONON” Muslim Uyghur puasa saja dilarang oleh pemerintah Cina. Bayangkan. Kira2 bagaimana ya cara melarang orang puasa? Puasa itu kan tidak ketahuan. Apa kira2 seluruh Muslim Uyghur ditawari es krim atau mie ayam dan disuruh makan oleh pemerintah Cina? Perlu “Kecerdasan” luar biasa bagi orang2 yang percaya bahwa ada pemerintah yang bisa melarang jutaan rakyatnya puasa.

Jadi sesuatu ada sebab-musababnya. Boleh dikata saat ini Rusia dan Cina adalah 2 negara yang tidak dikuasai oleh Zionis Yahudi. Oleh sebab itu Zionis Yahudi memanfaatkan Wahabi yang dominan di Chechnya untuk berontak thd pemerintah Rusia. Sedang Wahabi yang di Xinjiang, berontak thd pemerintah Cina. Ada pun Wahabi Indonesia, melakukan pemberitaan seolah2 semua Muslim di Cina ditindas. Padahal nyatanya Muslim Hui yang beraliran Sufi di propinsi Ningxia aman2 saja dan bebas menjalankan agamanya.

Sholat Idul Fitri di Beijing:
http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/BeijingInformation/BeijingNewsUpdate/t1194568.htm

by Chinese Hui Muslims, during which the Chinese police provided protection to the Hui Muslim protestors, and the Chinese government organized public burnings of the book. The Chinese government assisted them and gave into their demands because Hui do not have a separatist movement, unlike the Uyghurs, Hui Muslim protestors who violently rioted by vandalizing property during the protests against the book were let off by the Chinese government and went unpunished while Uyghur protestors were imprisoned.

Ningxia, is an autonomous region of the People’s Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country. Formerly a province, Ningxia was incorporated into Gansu in 1954 but was separated from Gansu in 1958 and was reconstituted as an autonomous region for the Hui people, one of the 56 officially recognised nationalities of China.

http://time.com/3099950/china-muslim-hui-xinjiang-uighur-islam/

If China Is Anti-Islam, Why Are These Chinese Muslims Enjoying a Faith Revival?
Hannah Beech @hkbeech Aug. 12, 2014
Hui imams pray before the main Friday prayers during the holy fasting month of Ramadan at the historic Niujie Mosque in Beijing on July 4, 2014
Beijing bans some Muslims from observing Ramadan, or boarding public transport while veiled, but it allows millions of others to practice their religion without hindrance

The road to Linxia, in China’s vast, sere northwest, is known locally as the Quran Belt, with a profusion of newly built mosques and Sufi shrines lining the motorway. Some are built in a traditional Chinese style, with pagoda-like eaves; others, with their green tiled domes, echo Middle Eastern architecture.

With violent unrest affecting northwestern Xinjiang, a spotlight has been cast on that area’s Muslim Uighurs, who have long chafed at rule from Beijing. But the Uighurs, some of whom yearn for autonomy from the People’s Republic, are not the biggest Muslim population in China, which has more adherents to Islam than the European Union. That distinction belongs to the Hui, a 10.5 million-strong group that is also the second largest of China’s 55 officially recognized ethnic minorities. One of the Hui centers of Islamic learning is the Wild West town of Linxia, in Gansu province, where Sufi traditions remain vibrant.

With the bloodshed in Xinjiang escalating — the most recent clash late last month, which the Chinese government labeled a “violent terrorist attack,” saw nearly 100 people killed, according to an official count — authorities have intensified a crackdown on spiritual expression by Uighurs. (Tibetans face religious repression too as their disenchantment with Chinese rule grows.) But this does not mean that Beijing is curtailing Islam nationwide. Indeed, members of the Muslim Hui community are enjoying a flowering of faith in what is, officially, still an atheist communist nation.

Linxia’s Islamic places of worship are just one symbol of this religious boom. Ismail, a Hui who works for a state-owned enterprise in the Ningxia autonomous region, says he openly practices his faith. “Of course, I fast during Ramadan,” he says. “All my Hui friends do it, too. It’s our obligation as Muslims.” But a Uighur college student says he and his classmates were not allowed to do the same. “[Han university authorities] make sure we eat at the cafeteria. They say they don’t want us to be tired, but I don’t believe them. It is because we are Uighur.”

Hui participation in the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca has increased over the past several years, say scholars. Another sign of renewed religious commitment: Ismail says he has noticed more Hui women in his hometown wearing veils in recent years. “As more Hui women receive education, they learn more about their own identities,” he says. “As a result, they realize the protection brought by Islam and are starting to wear veils more.”

By contrast, a local paper in the Xinjiang town of Karamay reported last week that residents with long beards, headscarves, veils and clothing with an Islamic crescent moon and star would not be allowed to board public buses while the city played host to a sporting event. In Kashgar, a Silk Road outpost that is a repository of Uighur culture, the local government has promoted a campaign called Project Beauty that urges Uighur women to “show your pretty faces and let your beautiful hair fly in the wind.” Uighurs also have a hard time getting passports to travel abroad, especially to go on the hajj.

“It’s not an issue of freedom of religion,” says Dru Gladney, one of the foremost academics studying Chinese Muslims. “Clearly, there are many avenues of religious expression that are unfettered in China, but when you cross these very often nebulous and shifting boundaries of what the state regards as political, then you’re in dangerous territory. Obviously this is what we see in Xinjiang and in Tibet.”

During the 2009 rioting in Xinjiang’s capital Urumqi that killed around 200 people, one reported refrain from extremist Uighurs spread across social media: “Kill the Han, kill the Hui.”

External influences are also becoming more important in Chinese Islam. The proliferation of Middle Eastern–style mosques in Linxia mirrors the rise of purist Salafi Islam across the world, from Indonesia to North Africa, in which a unified faith trumps indigenous variations. “In China, the Hui have extraordinarily illustrated this beautiful accommodation between Chinese culture and Islam,” says Gladney, who teaches at Pomona College in California. “But with the rise of social media and an idea of one Islamic world, this historic accommodation is being debated.”

Gladney notes that Hui clerics have studied at Egypt’s al-Azhar University, one of the world’s most important centers of Islamic learning, while around 300 Hui live in the holy Saudi Arabian city of Medina. “

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Wikipedia:
Islam in China
China banned a book titled “Xing Fengsu” (“Sexual Customs”) which insulted Islam and placed its authors under arrest in 1989 after protests in Lanzhou and Beijing by Chinese Hui Muslims, during which the Chinese police provided protection to the Hui Muslim protestors, and the Chinese government organized public burnings of the book.The Chinese government assisted them and gave into their demands because Hui do not have a separatist movement, unlike the Uyghurs, Hui Muslim protestors who violently rioted by vandalizing property during the protests against the book were let off by the Chinese government and went unpunished while Uyghur protestors were imprisoned.

Different Muslim ethnic groups in different regions are treated differently by the Chinese government in regards to religious freedom. Religious freedom is present for Hui Muslims, who can practice their religion, build Mosques, and have their children attend Mosques, while more controls are placed specifically on Uyghurs in Xinjiang.

Although religious education for children is officially forbidden by law in China, the Communist party allows Hui Muslims to violate this law and have their children educated in religion and attend Mosques while the law is enforced on Uyghurs. After secondary education is completed, China then allows Hui students who are willing to embark on religious studies under an Imam.[81] China does not enforce the law against children attending Mosques on non-Uyghurs in areas outside of Xinjiang.

Hui Muslims who are employed by the state are allowed to fast during Ramadan unlike Uyghurs in the same positions, the amount of Hui going on Hajj is expanding, and Hui women are allowed to wear veils, while Uyghur women are discouraged from wearing them and Uyghurs find it difficult to get passports to go on Hajj.

Hui religious schools are allowed a massive autonomous network of mosques and schools run by a Hui Sufi leader was formed with the approval of the Chinese government even as he admitted to attending an event where Bin Laden spoke.

Uyghur views vary by the oasis they live in. China has historically favored Turpan and Hami. Uyghurs in Turfan and Hami and their leaders like Emin Khoja allied with the Qing against Uyghurs in Altishahr. During the Qing dynasty, China enfeoffed the rulers of Turpan and Hami (Kumul) as autonomous princes, while the rest of the Uyghurs in Altishahr (the Tarim Basin) were ruled by Begs. Uyghurs from Turpan and Hami were appointed by China as officials to rule over Uyghurs in the Tarim Basin. Turpan is more economically prosperous and views China more positively than the rebellious Kashgar, which is the most anti-China oasis. Uyghurs in Turpan are treated leniently and favourably by China with regards to religious policies, while Kashgar is subjected to controls by the government.[88][89] In Turpan and Hami, religion is viewed more positively by China than religion in Kashgar and Khotan in southern Xinjiang.[90] Both Uyghur and Han Communist officials in Turpan turn a blind eye to the law and allow religious Islamic education for Uyghur children. Celebrating at religious functions and going on Hajj to Mecca is encouraged by the Chinese government, for Uyghur members of the Communist party. From 1979-1989, 350 mosques were built in Turpan. Han, Hui, and the Chinese government are viewed much more positively by Uyghurs specifically in Turpan, with the government providing better economic, religious, and political treatment for them.

Tensions between Hui Muslims and Uyghurs arise because Hui troops and officials often dominated the Uyghurs and crush Uyghur revolts. Xinjiang’s Hui population increased by over 520 percent between 1940 and 1982, an average annual growth of 4.4 percent, while the Uyghur population only grew at 1.7 percent. This dramatic increase in Hui population led inevitably to significant tensions between the Hui and Uyghur populations. Some Uyghurs in Kashgar remember that the Hui army at the Battle of Kashgar (1934) massacred 2,000 to 8,000 Uyghurs, which causes tension as more Hui moved into Kashgar from other parts of China.[96] Some Hui criticize Uyghur separatism and generally do not want to get involved in conflict in other countries.[97] Hui and Uyghur live separately, attending different mosques.[98]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_China

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